The latest study from the Jill Roberts Institute, "The neuropeptide neuromedin U stimulates innate lymphoid cells and type 2 inflammation," was published on September 6 in Nature. To read more, click here.     Dr. Gregory Sonnenberg wins inaugural award from the Society for Mucosal Immunology. To read more, click here.  The Kenneth Rainin Foundation awarded Dr. Iliyan Iliev and colleagues from Mount Sinai a $250,000 Synergy Award to examine the composition of the fungal community in babies born to mothers with inflammatory bowel disease. To read more, click here. Dr. Randy Longman received the Irma T. Hirschl Career Scientist Award and the New York Crohn’s Foundation Award.    

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Type I Interferon Receptor Deficiency in Dendritic Cells Facilitates Systemic Murine Norovirus Persistence Despite Enhanced Adaptive Immunity.

TitleType I Interferon Receptor Deficiency in Dendritic Cells Facilitates Systemic Murine Norovirus Persistence Despite Enhanced Adaptive Immunity.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsNice, TJ, Osborne, LC, Tomov, VT, Artis, D, E Wherry, J, Virgin, HW
JournalPLoS Pathog
Volume12
Issue6
Paginatione1005684
Date Published2016 Jun
ISSN1553-7374
Abstract

In order for a virus to persist, there must be a balance between viral replication and immune clearance. It is commonly believed that adaptive immunity drives clearance of viral infections and, thus, dysfunction or viral evasion of adaptive immunity is required for a virus to persist. Type I interferons (IFNs) play pleiotropic roles in the antiviral response, including through innate control of viral replication. Murine norovirus (MNoV) replicates in dendritic cells (DCs) and type I IFN signaling in DCs is important for early control of MNoV replication. We show here that the non-persistent MNoV strain CW3 persists systemically when CD11c positive DCs are unable to respond to type I IFN. Persistence in this setting is associated with increased early viral titers, maintenance of DC numbers, increased expression of DC activation markers and an increase in CD8 T cell and antibody responses. Furthermore, CD8 T cell function is maintained during the persistent phase of infection and adaptive immune cells from persistently infected mice are functional when transferred to Rag1-/- recipients. Finally, increased early replication and persistence are also observed in mixed bone marrow chimeras where only half of the CD11c positive DCs are unable to respond to type I IFN. These findings demonstrate that increased early viral replication due to a cell-intrinsic innate immune deficiency is sufficient for persistence and a functional adaptive immune response is not sufficient for viral clearance.

DOI10.1371/journal.ppat.1005684
Alternate JournalPLoS Pathog.
PubMed ID27327515
PubMed Central IDPMC4915689
Grant ListK08 DK097301 / DK / NIDDK NIH HHS / United States
U19 AI109725 / AI / NIAID NIH HHS / United States